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Certified brand memory
Our Certified memory has been 100% tested, and is cross-referenced to specific machines. It comes with a lifetime manufacturers limited warranty, and if we have quoted Certified memory for a specific make and model of machine, it comes with a compatibility guarantee.
Our Kingston ValueRAM, Corsair ValueSelect, Trancend and Crucial memory conforms fully to industry standard configurations. However,
there are many variations among machines, so while we guarantee that our Generic
memory conforms to specification, we cannot be absolutely positive that your
particular computer model 100% conforms to the same specification. Our Generic
listings for different models of computer are based on our best research and
experience, but are not to be considered a guarantee of compatibility. Always call or email for a cross-reference and recommendation for your specific machine or motherboard.
Kingston Guaranteed Compatibility:
If you are looking for a memory module that is guaranteed to work with your
specific model of machine, our Kingston Brand memory is tested and certified
for each particular model of computer, and is guaranted to match that model's
Checking your Machine's Configuration:
Windows: Check the owner's manual for the machine or the motherboard, or check your receipt to find out what the stock configuration of the machine is. You can download and install the free Belarc
Advisor <www.belarc.com/free_download.html> or CPU-Z <www.cpuid.com> to get a report on your machine's current configuration. Some manufacturers, including Dell, offer an online configuration checker based on ther serial number of the machine.
Macintosh: Check the Apple System Profiler in the Applications: Utilities
folder (OSX) or under the Apple Menu for system information. In addition to the speed of the machine and the processor type, in the Hardware: Memory section it will tell you what RAM is currently installed, and the Macintosh ID such as MacBookPro7,1. You'll see something like DDR3-1600 in the Memory area. Knowing this can help in the case where there are different Mac models with overlapping speeds.
Types of RAM:
Memory Terminology: This is a simplified overview of RAM terms and definitions
100 pin memory
Used primarily in laser printers, 100 pin SIMM memory is not compatible with
To oversimplify a complex discussion, the main timing of a RAM module is described
by a CAS (Column Address Strobe) Latency value. This is the length of time
that a RAM module needs between serving one request and when it is "recharged" and
able to take the next request. All
else being equal, and if the motherboard can make use of faster latencies,
at a given memory bus speed, the lower the CAS Latency value the faster the RAM can respond.
There are other
latency measurements but CAS Latency is the most important. See
our article on choosing memory speed.
- In older SDRAM (PC66, PC100, PC133) , a CL2 module is not always faster than a CL3 module - the
effective speed is determined by the memory controller on the motherboard of
the computer, and in some cases a CL3 module matches an older motherboard's
timing better and performs faster than a CL2 module.
- Non-Synchronus memory isn't measured the same way - it has a memory response speed in nanoseconds, and the computer waits for the RAM chip to be ready. Synchronous RAM, in contrast, synchronizes its operations to the computer's memory buss clock. SDRAM can be CAS 2 or CAS 3
- DDR RAM is normally CAS Latency 2.5 for PC2700 modules and CL3 for PC3200 modules. Premium modules are available with CL2.5 or CL2.0 on higher-capacity PC3200 modules. (DDR make two operations per clock cycle, which is why it can have "half" of a tick)
- DDR2 RAM is normally CAS Latency 4 (DDR2-533), CAS Latency 5 (DDR2-667) and CAS Latency 5 0r 6 (DDR2-800). Lower latency RAM is available at higher prices.
- DDR3 RAM has CAS latencies in the range of 7 to 9. This means that the latency penalty versus DDR-2 RAM negates some of the advantage of DDR3 running at higher clock speeds. This is expected to improve over time.
- DDR4 RAM has CAS latencies in the range of 14 to 19 depending on the speed
DDR - Dual Data Rate RAM
Can be packaged in both DIMM (184-pin for Desktops) and SO-DIMM (200-pin
for laptops) forms. Speeds are PC2100 (266 MHz) PC2700 (333 MHz) and PC3200
MHz) DDR . The standards for speeds higher than PC3200 are not finalized,
although some manufacturers offer "PC3700" "PC4000" and
up DDR modules as a marketing designation.
A format that is faster than DDR. DDR and DDR-2 are not compatible with
each other. Designations are PC2-5300 (DDR2-667 MHz), PC2-4200 (DDR2-533 MHz,
also called by some manufacturers PC4300), and PC2-6400 (DDR2-800). Available
in both DIMM and SODIMM packages. Faster speed RAM is available at higher prices.
DDR, DDR-2 and DDR-3 are not compatible with
each other. Some early DDR3 motherboards have sockets for both DDR2 and DDR3 memory, however the two formats cannot be combined at the same time.
DDR4 is now the primary RAM type for new desktop and laptop machines and motherboards. DDR4 allows higher speeds, from 2133 MHz to 3600 MHz and above, and permits larger capacity single modules. DDR, DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4 are not compatible with
When a RAM module is built, the manufacturer can design it using high density
or low density chips. For example, modules built with 4 x 1024Mb chips, 8 x
512Mb chips or 16 x 256Mb chips all come out to the same amount of RAM. However,
memory controller circuit in a computer must be able to address the chips
on the module - if the memory controller cannot address higher density
that computer will only function with modules built with lower density chips.
DIMM - Dual Inline Memory Module
Found in desktop machines and servers, PC66, PC100 and PC133 are all different
speeds of DIMMs in a 168 pin package, there are also SDRAM DIMMs that
predate the PC66 standard. (DDR memory is also technically a DIMM format
usually referred to as DDR rather than DIMM). The 168-pin DIMM format
is 5.25 inches long and may be from .75 to 2 inches tall.
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory - the general description of almost all computer memory.
Dual Channel memory - In Dual-Channel Mode, (whether in a PowerMac G5, Mac Intel, or modern PC motherboards), the memory controller addresses a pair of matched modules as if they were one big module. This doubles the theoretical bandwidth of the memory. Benchmark improvement of memory performance can be up to 40%, typically around 20%, but real-world improvement to application performance will be between 6% and 8% because your machine spends a lot of time on tasks other than waiting for the memory. wikipedia definition
In order for dual channel to work, the two memory modules have to be identical in size, speed, and composition -- that is, the number and capacity of chips and the organization of the rows and columns on the chips. Note that they don't HAVE to be the same brand and model, as long as all the other things match... but it is much easier to assure that they will match if two of the same modules are bought together at the same time or as a dual-channel kit. It's important to note that there is no difference to the individual memory module whether it is single or dual channel - Dual Channel refers only to the use of two modules as a matched pair.
If a motherboard does not support dual channel, there is no way to add the function, and installing matched pairs will not result in any performance increase.
ECC - Error Correcting RAM - also called Parity RAM
ECC RAM has an extra error-correcting bit (9 bits instead of 8 per word)
for higher reliability in servers and high-end machines. Most forms of
DIMMs, RDRAM and
DDR RAM) are available in either ECC or Non-ECC. Most common computers use
Non-ECC (standard) memory. In order to use ECC RAM,
- The machine's motherboard must support ECC, and
- All of the RAM in the machine must be ECC. If you install Non-ECC and ECC
together, the machine might work, but all of the RAM will revert to Non-ECC
- Although some machines can accept either ECC or Non-ECC, there is little advantage
to installing ECC RAM in a general purpose machine and possibly a small speed penalty to using ECC.
If you have a machine that can take either ECC or Non-ECC and are unsure what
to order, either check the RAM that is already installed, or check your purchase
invoice for the machine, which should indicate whether ECC was installed or
not initially. Do not mix ECC and Non-ECC if you can avoid it.
Reading memory chip part numbers: You can sometimes read from the part number
whether the RAM in your machine is ECC (Parity). ECC RAM often has a number
in the part number that is a multiple of 9, where Non-ECC would have a multiple
of 8. Example, RAM that has x18 or x36 or x72 in the number would be ECC, compared
to Non-ECC with x16 or x32 or x64.
Registered (R) vs. Unregistered (unbuffered) (U or UR) vs. Load Reduced (LR) memory
Memory modules can be built with additional support chips to buffer the flow of data on and off the module. This provides less load to the motherboard, increases reliability, and allows for the use of larger or more memory modules. There is sometimes a small speed penalty to this.
Because of the added expense of the modules and the performance hit, the use of buffered or registered memory is confined mainly to servers and high end workstations (and some early Athlon 64 motherboards). All non-ECC memory is unbuffered.
If a machine requires registered memory (or unregistered memory, or Load Reduced memory) do not install RAM of any other type. Even if the machine model supports both, never mix registered and unregistered modules or Registered and Load Reduced in the same machine.
Non-ECC RAM also called Non-Parity RAM - this is the standard memory used in desktops and laptops. Unless specified otherwise, all standard RAM is Non-ECC, unbuffered and unregistered.
Extended Data Out
FPM - Fast Page Mode
These two terms refer to old (c. 1998 and earlier) RAM produced
before the introduction of the PC66 standard. SIMMs, DIMMs and SO-DIMMs can
or FPM, Some desktop machines can take EDO or FPM interchangeably (although
to match the existing RAM type), in
EDO and FPM
cannot be substituted for each other. Some EDO modules are rising in price
by most chipmakers. It is not unusual for an EDO SO-DIMM for an older laptop
to cost hundreds of dollars. The distinction between EDO and FPM is irrelevant
with PC66, PC100, PC133, RAMBus and DDR RAM types.
Any of a number of types of RAM that stores data even when the power is turned
off. The firmware (BIOS) of most machines is kept in flash RAM (also called
NVRAM - Non-Volitile Random Access Memory).
Digital Camera memory cards such
as CompactFlash and SecureDigital use Flash RAM technology. The term Flash
card is loosely used to cover any form of portable non-volitile memory card or USB memory stick.
SSD Solid State Drives also use NAND flash memory chips, but with much more complex memory controllers, so are not usually referred to as Flash.
Memory Speed: Measured in megahertz (MHz).
Putting in faster RAM will not
make the machine run any faster. The memory is accessed at the speed set
by the machine's memory controller. RAM with a faster speed rating will simply
be run at the controller's normal speed. The motherboard must support adjusting to higher
memory bus speeds (either manually through a BIOS setting, or automatically) for there to be any advantage to faster rated RAM. See our
One note: DDR RAM are Dual Data Rate (they process on both the rising edge of the clock tick and the falling edge so get two operations per clock), so the rated speed of the memory (such as DDR4-2400) is double the actual clock speed of the memory bus (1200 MHz)
Rare, smaller than the SODIMM format, found in a few Sony, Panasonic. Fujitsu, Acer and Toshiba laptops. The MicroDIMM package can be either PC100. PC133 or DDR PC2100 or PC2700 or DDR2-4200, and there may be 144, 172 or 214 pins. The different formats are not interchangeable. These are difficult to find and many variations are discontinued or not available.
PC66, PC100, PC133:
These are standards for SDRAM DIMMs and SO-DIMMs that specify memory bus speeds of
66 MHz, 100 MHz and 133 MHz. In broad terms, you can substitute faster RAM
into a machine (putting PC133 into a machine that specifies PC100, for example),
but there is no performance benefit to doing so.
However there are a number of earlier PC66 and
PC100 machines that are incompatible with modern PC133 modules for reasons
of both memory chip density and differences in the supporting chips on the
memory module. Always cross-reference compatibility before ordering.
The physical size of the RAM module, both in height and in thickness. Some
machines, particularly laptops, have physical space limitations that demand
low-profile or in some cases super-low profile modules.
Any memory format that does not conform to the common standards. Some machines,
predominantly laptops built earlier than 1998 and some laser printers, use a proprietary memory packaging.
These modules have mainly been discontinued by manufacturers and may be difficult
or impossible to source.
RAMBus, RIMM (RAMBus Inline Memory Module), also
called RDRAM: RAMBus memory modules are an obsolete memory type. Most often, 16-bit RAMBus memory must be installed in pairs. In some machines, a dummy terminator module or Continuity RIMM (CRIMM) is required to fill the empty sockets.
RAMBus speeds are PC800 (for machines with 400 MHz and 533 MHz Frontside Busses) and PC1066 (533 MHz FSB). The PC600 and PC700
designations are obsolete and PC800 can be substituted. There are 2 variations on PC800 RAMBus - 45 nanosecond and the faster 40 ns. The 45 ns memory can usually be used on machines with 400 MHz FSB. A 533 MHz FSB machine will take the 40 ns modules, and may not accept the 45 ns modules.
Most manufacturers have discontinued RAMBus, PC1066 is largely unavailable, for the time being there are still supplies of PC800 RAM, and the faster PC800-40ns RAM can sometimes be used to substitute for PC1066. Always cross-reference compatibility with your specific machine before ordering.
32-bit RAMBus modules have been introduced which can be installed
singly - however the motherboard has to specifically support 32-bit RAMBus
to use these. 32-bit RAMBus (sometimes called PC4200) has been discontinued
and is completely unavailable.
It is not possible to convert a RAMBus motherboard to use any other type of RAM. Although you could swap in a modern motherboard with some computers, there are problems with mismatches in power supplies and in processor pinouts - most RAMBus motherboards use an obsolete CPU socket, so the CPU cannot be swapped into a new motherboard. Ultimately, replacing the machine with a new one is the answer.
SIMM - Single Inline Memory Module:
Found in older desktops and many laser printers, in 72-pin packages, and
less commonly 30-pin. Commonly must be installed in pairs. Whether a
SIMM is FPM
or EDO memory (see below) is significant.
SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory - the general discription of most modern RAM. Although DDR and DDR-2 RAM is technically Synchronous memory, the term SDRAM is sometimes used for PC66, PC100 and PC133 RAM to distinguish them from DDR memory. Synchronous refers to the fact that starting with PC66 memory, the memory module no longer ran 'free' according to the refresh rate of its chips, but instead took its timing from a clock pulse from the motherboard. Once memory modules were designed to synchronize to an external clock, manufacturers were able to produce ever faster RAM that could transfer large amounts of data reliably.
SO-DIMM (SODIMM)- Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module:
Most often found in laptops but also in iMac and Mac Mini desktops. Most SDRAM SODIMMs are 144 pin packages, DDR and DDR2 in 200 pin SODIMMs and and DDR3 203 pin SODIMMs. There are also some rare 72 pin small-outline modules.
Modifying a motherboard to run at speeds higher than the speed it was designed
for. RAM is certified to run reliably at the speed it is sold as, and may or
may not work reliably at increased speeds. There is no warranty on RAM run at
faster than design speeds. There are specific RAM modules sold (notably Kingston HyperX and Corsair XMS) with higher speed ratings and lower latencies, specifically for the overclocking market. There is always a trade-off between pushing the performance envelope of hardware versus stability and longer life. The common method of overclocking is to increase speeds to the point where the machine becomes unstable, and then reducing the speed to the point where it runs acceptably reliably.
VRAM - VideoRAM:
Memory that is dedicated to the use of the graphics processing unit (video card). The VRAM is usually faster than normal RAM and more expensive. Top of the line video cards have between 4 GB and 8 GB or more of fast GDDR5 VRAM. Large amounts of VRAM are used for 3-D gaming and where the program is manipulating large amounts of textures and shader data and for higher screen resolutions. Normal 2-D display requires minimal amounts of VRAM depending on resolution of the display. VRAM is usually soldered onto the video card, and is not upgradeable.
Shared VRAM is a misnomer - this really refers to motherboards with
built-in graphics chips with no dedicated VRAM. The graphics system "steals"
128 Mb to 2 GB of
memory from main system memory. This results in lower performance for video, and a loss
to the operating system. An easy speed up for inexpensive desktop machines with shared, or integrated, video systems is to install a separate PCI-e video card (if the machine has a suitable slot) and disable the built-in graphics system.
High speed memory, that acts as a buffer between a processor and lower speed devices (memory, disk storage or a buss) Cache acts like the little decanter of coffee creamer at your restaurant table. You can serve yourself small quantities immediately, without having to call back to the kitchen and waiting for each serving. Similarly, cache RAM allows a processor to get access to the most recently used items in memory very quickly, without having to process a request for each bit to come from the main memory. This makes operations faster, because much of a computer's time is spent accessing the same instructions or the same data repeatedly. In the mid 80s, some computers had upgradeable cache RAM, which was expensive, but gave a performance boost. Today, all major processors have between 256 Mb and 12Gb of cache RAM built right onto the CPU's die, where it can be accessed directly by the CPU core. The days of user-accessible cache RAM are long over. Hard drives use cache RAM as well, between 8MB and 256MB of SDRAM built onto the drive controller board to buffer reads and writes while the drive platters and heads are positioning in the correct locations.
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